A “pact of peace with nature” that aims to protect lands, oceans and species from pollution, degradation and the climate crisis. That’s how it was called historic agreement reached by the United Nations conference on biodiversity (Cop 15), meeting in Montreal in Canada, which provides for a more significant commitment, also in the form of funding, to save ecosystems.
Baptized Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Frameworkthe agreement aims to reverse decades of human action that has destroyed the environment and threatens species, ecosystems and resources essential to humanity, including the protecting 30% of the planet by 2030the restoration of 30% of degraded marine and terrestrial areas always by 2030 and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples.
The understanding also unlocks $30 billion in annual environmental aid for developing countries, according to the draft published by China, which holds the presidency of COP15.
Cop 15 in Montreal Canada
The main points of the agreement
The key element of the twenty measures on which the delegates of the 196 countries present have found agreement is the creation, by 2030, Of protected areas on more than 30% of the planet. A measure considered the biodiversity equivalent of the Paris Agreement target on climate. Currently, only 17% of land and 10% of marine areas are protected.
The text also offers guarantees for indigenous peoplescustodians of 80% of residual biodiversity on Earth, and proposes to restore 30% of degraded lands and halve the risk associated with pesticides.
China has proposed to include in the roadmap the goal of achieving by 2025, “at least 20 billion dollars” a year in international aid for biodiversity and “at least 30 billion by 2030”.
There is no time to lose. According to scientists, 75% of the world’s ecosystems are altered by human activity and over one million species are threatened with extinction. A catastrophe also because more than half of the world’s GDP depends on nature.
The previous agreement, signed in Japan in 2010, achieved almost none of its goals, mainly because it lacked enforcement and monitoring mechanisms. Precisely for this reason, believing that humanity has become “a weapon of mass extinction”, the UN secretary general, Antonio Guterres, had invited the parties to sign a “pact of peace with nature”.